Auscultation of Breath Sounds References

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  3. Cugell DW. Lung sound nomenclature. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987;136:1016.
  4. Pasterkamp H, Kraman SS, Wodicka GR. Respiratory sounds. Advances beyond the stethoscope. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156:974-987.
  5. Epler GR, Carrington CB, Gaensler EA. Crackles (rales) in the interstitial pulmonary diseases. Chest. 1978;73:333-339.
  6. Kraman SS. Lung sounds for the clinician. Arch Intern Med. 1986;146:1411-1412.
  7. Forgacs P. The functional basis of pulmonary sounds. Chest. 1978;73:399-405.
  8. Standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:S77-121.